When daisies bloom, it is an exciting sight. Chamomile, or matricarius, is a delicate flower. The plant got its name from the Latin word "matrix". Translated, this means uterus. There is a possibility that many female ailments have healed with the help of it.
Varieties of daisies
Matricaria is a representative of flowering plants from the family Asteraceae. He is a perennial. Flowers grow wild in the meadows, and their cultural representatives adorn flower beds in the gardens.
These include about 20 varieties of undersized aromatic herbs. Plants begin to bloom during the first year of their life. Flowering begins 30-50 days after the appearance of the very first seedlings.
Many plants of other genera from the aster family are called daisies. But all of them only have an external resemblance to matricaria. Wildflowers do not have such a chic and attractive appearance as cultural ones.
Daisies include flowers:
- heliopsis of sunflower;
- common and largest nimbus;
- pyrethrum pink;
- umbilical cords;
- Echinacea purpurea;
- chrysanthemums of autumn.
Their inflorescences-baskets are endowed with regional reed flowers. They may have a white or other shade of petals. The central place of the inflorescence is always the darkest. The leaves of plants are endowed with completely different forms. From a botanical point of view, to call them daisies is a mistake.
These herbs are often used in decorative floriculture. They have a very attractive appearance, so they are widely used in the design of urban flower beds.
These plants are not very demanding on the soil. They prefer well-lit places. If plants are planted in a darkened area, they will have small flowers and sparse flowering.
Daisies are bred as seedlings for rabatok and flower beds in greenhouses, as they are unstable to frost. These herbs withstand transplant wonderful.
The distance between the shoots should be:
- at least 30 cm for tall species;
- 20-25 cm for medium-sized flowers;
- 15-20 cm for stunted plants.
To create bouquets, daisies are cultivated in discounts. Low-growing species of flowers take root well in pots. In most cases, they serve to decorate borders.
In order for plants to please the eye for a longer time, it is necessary to systematically remove blooming inflorescences.
About once every 5 years it is necessary to renew the planted bushes. Otherwise, the ornamental plant is reborn. It begins to look rather wild like a pretty strong one. In some cases, it can even take the form of a weed.
Some of them (for example, Echinacea purpurea) are wonderful medicines.
This is the most famous type of matricaria. He is a real daisy. This plant is widespread. It grows in Europe, Asia, Africa and America.
In the wild, chamomile pharmacy is able to develop as a winter or spring plant. Most matricaria grows like winter crops. Its seeds can germinate at the end of the summer period and in the fall. Before cold weather, a rosette of green leaves forms. In this state, young plants spend winter time.
Intensive growth of matricaria begins after the arrival of spring and the establishment of fairly warm weather conditions. The main and side shoots develop, buds appear. The flowering of chamomile pharmacy begins in the month of June. In the first decade of July, ripened fruits appear.
With the onset of early spring and warm weather, the development of chamomile is much faster. She begins to bloom in May. During the last days of July and with the onset of August, the herbs dry completely.
Chamomile flowering may begin later than usual.
This happens in the cold and rainy years. In this case, the flowering of chamomile is delayed before the onset of frost.
Some plants are formed according to the type of spring crops. Their entire life period proceeds during one vegetative cycle without interruption. Shoots begin to appear in the spring. Before the start of autumn, the grass has time to produce seeds.
If summer and autumn are hot and arid, the number of plants that form in the winter type is greatly reduced. Most seeds germinate in spring. In such cases, the number of seedlings in the spring increases significantly. The sprouting of wild chamomile sprouts at different times contributes to the introduction of changes in annually recurring phenomena in its annual development cycle.
In nature, pharmacy chamomile grows like weed grass in meadows and vacant lots, along the edges of fields and along roadsides, near housing. On special plantations, it is grown for the manufacture of medicines and cosmetics.
When sowing seeds in winter, chamomile seedlings appear in the second half of April. Such plants bloom one month earlier than when sowing seeds in the spring.
Collection and use
Since the flowering period of chamomile lasts from May to late autumn, it is possible to collect inflorescences for such a long period about 6 times. They need to be dried outdoors in the shade. Store the resulting raw materials in cloth bags, bags or paper crates for no longer than one year.
Chamomile pharmacy is used independently and in herbal preparations for the manufacture of medicinal drinks. They are recommended to be used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (intestinal disorders, gastritis and ulcers).
Matricaria is a mild sedative and painkiller. Therefore, adding honey or sugar (milk) to chamomile tea, the drink can be taken with insomnia, overwork or mental stress.