These beautiful flowers are usually planted in the ground in the fall, but it is possible to plant hyacinths in the spring. Then their flowering will delight the eye even longer with its amazing beauty and fill the air with a delicious aroma both at home and in public flower beds.
White, blue, lilac, pink, red, yellow, orange - the color of hyacinths can be the most diverse. All of them came from three main types of hyacinths: Hyacinthus orientalis, Hyacinthus litwinowii, Hyacinthus transcaspicus. Depending on the variety, the shape of the flower can be simple or terry, and the timing of flowering changes. But caring for any of the representatives of hyacinths is equally difficult, since these beauties are very whimsical.
Choosing the right place to land
Hyacinths flowers in the wild grow in countries with warm climates. Therefore, in the middle zone of Russia with its frosts, it is necessary to dig bulbs annually so that the newly formed new shoots do not die and feel like in their homeland.
Hyacinths are very fond of the sun, but direct and too bright sunlight can harm them. You can plant flowers near the trees, but in such a way that tall plants do not completely block the light. In addition, you will have to fertilize this area more often than usual, as the trees will pick up nutrients for hyacinths.
A strong wind can break delicate flowers, so the area where planting will be carried out must be reliably protected even from small drafts. However, the soil on which these spring flowers grow, on the contrary, must be loose and breathable.
With extreme caution, you need to choose the place where the hyacinth flower will grow. This should be a site with a flat surface or a small slope so that running water does not stagnate at the roots. Since hyacinth bulbs do not have a protective film, an excess of moisture can cause fungus or mold to form on them. It is necessary to check the depth of groundwater in the selected place. It should be at least 50-60 cm, otherwise you will have to make a mound and add additional drainage. The most suitable soil for hyacinths is sandy loam.
In order to avoid infection of flowers with various diseases typical of all bulbs, you can not plant them for several years in the same place. Hyacinths are preferably transplanted every year. You can re-plant the plants on the old site no earlier than after 3 years. Landing on soil already used for other bulb crops, including tulips, crocuses, daffodils, is not recommended.
When the place where hyacinths will be planted has already been chosen, soil fertilizer should be taken care of.
This is done about two months before the bulbs are planted so that further soil sediment does not damage the fragile roots of the young plant, although the minimum is a period of 10 days. That is, it is better to start preparing immediately as the snow melts, if it is decided to plant hyacinths in the spring.
If the flowers are going to be grown at home, then the soil must be dug in advance to a depth of 30-50 cm and fed with rotted manure or humus of 10 kg per square meter of land area. River sand is poured on top with a layer of about 3 cm. This will prevent waterlogging and the possible development of infections in plants.
Mineral fertilizers, both in the complex and separately, can be added at any time - even in the spring, at least in the fall. Depending on the selected area and soil, these spring flowers may need superphosphate, potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, an average of 60, 30 and 15 mg per square meter, respectively. If such fertilizers are not at home at hand, then they can be replaced. For example, wood ash is used instead of potassium sulfate, and magnesium fertilizers are replaced with dolomite flour.
Hyacinth fertilizers can be applied in dry form or pre-dissolved. In this case, a smaller amount of substance will be sufficient for the aqueous solution, but the soil should first be moistened.
After performing all of the above steps, you need to cover the prepared soil so that it does not erode with rains before the time comes to plant the bulbs. For this, boards, plywood, film or even an ordinary pile of leaves are suitable. It is advisable to make sure that weeds will not grow in the place where it is planned to plant hyacinth.
How to plant hyacinth
How to plant hyacinths in spring
Before planting hyacinths, you need to sort through the available bulbs and select from them only healthy, smooth, dense and without spots, and discard the rest. If you plant bulbs of approximately the same size, then the flowering period of plants will take place simultaneously. It is recommended to take medium-sized planting material, as strong enough plants can grow out of it, able to survive the weather and resistant to diseases, while small bulbs will become weak peduncles. Large ones are more suitable for forcing flowers in the winter.
In practice, planting hyacinths consists of the following steps:
- Preliminarily, the bulbs are soaked for half an hour at home in a fungicide solution for disinfection.
- At the bottom of the recess in the ground, a little clean sand is poured.
- Prepared hyacinths are placed in a hole to a depth of 15-18 cm and slightly pressed. At the same time, at least 12 cm with a bulb diameter of 5 cm or more should remain to the left and right to neighboring plants. If the bulbs are less than 5 cm in diameter, then they can be planted denser and not so deep.
- All hyacinths are again covered with sand and then soil. Such a “sand rim” will help maintain the right amount of moisture in the soil.
- If the ground is dry above, then you need to slightly water the planted spring flower.
- If at night the temperature drops significantly or cooling is expected, then the site should be covered with a small layer of peat or a film, which can then be easily removed during warming.
If hyacinths are planted in large quantities, then high beds can be a convenient placement option, which will facilitate the care of plants. In addition, they can be planted not only in open ground, but also at home, for example, in pots. Landing is similar, you just need to choose the right size of the tank and lighting. Large bulbs are planted one at a time in a flat pot with a diameter of about 10 cm, small ones - at once a few pieces in a pot of larger diameter (14 cm or more, depending on the number of plants).
How to plant hyacinths in open ground
How to care for hyacinths
Hyacinths need careful care. The soil around them should always be loose, the presence of weeds is categorically unacceptable, therefore, frequent weeding should be done. Inspect the plant periodically and remove dried and diseased leaves. To protect flowers from weeds and diseases, you can mulch the soil at the end of planting.
The land under hyacinths should always be moderately moist, which requires regular, but not excessive watering. Such care should be performed at any time of the year, but especially in the dry season, when the soil should be at least 20 cm moist. With insufficient watering, the plant may not take root or its flowering period will be very short.
In order for hyacinths to be healthy and bloom profusely, you need to choose the right way to feed the plants. First of all, mineral fertilizers are suitable. Top dressing must be carried out at least 3 times during the growing season. The first time since planting, the soil is fertilized immediately after the emergence of sprouts. At this time, it is advisable to add nitrate and superphosphate. They can be scattered on the surface of the soil and dug with a chopper, combining top dressing with watering. The second top dressing takes place during the flowering period, it includes all the same superphosphate and potassium fertilizers. The same mineral nutrients are required during the third feeding, when the flowering of hyacinths is completed.
Hyacinth care also includes protecting plants from diseases and pests. There are several possible causes of the disease: planting already infected or spoiled bulbs, using fresh organic fertilizers, too acidic soil. Often there is bacterial rot affecting the bulbs. Infected plants should be dug up and burned immediately.