One of the newest and most promising areas of malinovodstvo was the cultivation of standard berry berries. Tree raspberries are known to many experienced gardeners as raspberries or stem raspberries.
Feature and Features
Tree-like, or shtambovaya raspberries, is a shrub with thick and very strong branches of a branched type. Straight raspberry shoots are characterized by straightness and stockiness. The average height of such a plant does not exceed one and a half meters. A feature of the berry culture is dense wood and a non-drooping top, which allows cultivation without the use of special supporting structures, trellises and tying.
The plants are powerful, but compact enough, so care for them does not require much time and effort. The positive feedback from gardeners about the standard berry culture is due not only to the marketability of the berry and the abundant, stable yield, but also to the possibility of cultivating raspberry plantings in the field. Fruit buds densely located on the stem make the plant very decorative both at the flowering stage and during the period of massive, abundant fruiting.
The first varieties of tree raspberries were obtained by domestic breeder Professor V.V. Kichina at VSTISP almost thirty years ago as a result of crossbreeding of the Stambovy-1 donor and the popular Stolichnaya raspberry variety. IN Currently, under the conditions of home gardening, six basic standard varieties of berry plants are cultivated, which combine the positive qualities of traditional varieties of raspberries and unpretentiousness.
|Grade name||Botanical Description||Berry characteristic||Varietal Features|
|Tarusa||Medium-ripening variety, with powerful shoots 2.0-2.1 m high, covered with a wax coating, without studs||Bright raspberry stain, weighing up to 12-14 g, attractive appearance||Frost resistance and high resistance to the most harmful diseases and pests|
|"Fairy tale"||The plant is powerful and well developed, up to one and a half meters high.||Large, weighing up to 16-18 g, suitable for transportation||High-yielding, frost-resistant standard grade|
|"Fortress"||Tree raspberry with very strong and powerful branches that do not need support, up to 1.5-1.7 m high||Bunches of fairly large sweet and sour berries weighing 7-9 g||High-yielding variety with excellent winter hardiness, unpretentious and reliable. Medium-ripening variety|
|"Eurasia"||Modern variety with straight shoots no more than one and a half meters long||Large-sized fruits, weighing 4.5-5.5 g, dark raspberry-colored, conical, with dense, tasty pulp||Frost resistance and high resistance to the most harmful diseases and pests|
|"Galaxy"||Well-developed medium-sized shrub a little over one and a half meters high with powerful shoots||Burgundy red color, transportable large berries with dense but juicy pulp||Very productive mid-late variety with excellent frost resistance|
|"Penguin"||The bush is straight-growing and powerful, non-obstructing type, with a height of not more than 1.0-1.4 m||Dark raspberry staining, round-conical, large, weighing 4.2-5.2 g, dense||Friendly return of the harvest, the harvest has keeping quality and transportability|
Raspberries of the standard type prefer areas brightly lit by the sun, inaccessible to drafts and gusty winds. The most comfortable conditions for tree-like plants are observed on slopes with no ground or non-flowing water. It is desirable that the soil is neutral or slightly acidic. Good drainage, which is favorable for the growth and development of the root system, is also very important.
It is not recommended to use for planting areas from which a crop of potatoes or other nightshade crops has recently been harvested. Experts and experienced gardeners recommend pre-sowing a plot under raspberries with rape or mustard. Legumes are a good precursor for berry plants.
Raspberry "Fortress": growing
Tree raspberries can be planted in spring, in the second decade of April, or in the autumn period, in the last days of September. Depending on weather conditions and climatic features in the growing region, it is allowed to adjust the timing of planting.
It is advisable to prepare the soil in advance on the site for planting and growing a berry culture. The soil should be deep digged, and it is also necessary to remove all weed vegetation from the site. For each square meter of the landing area, a couple of buckets of humus, 0.15 kg of nitroamophos and about a glass of wood ash are required. Landing is done in an ordinary way, and for better lighting, it is advisable to place the rows in a direction from north to south. Raspberry seedlings, depending on varietal characteristics, are planted with a distance of 60-80 cm from each other. After planting, the shoots must be cut off above the ground, leaving approximately 25-30 cm. It is advisable to mulch the soil around the berry bushes with humus, and then water the raspberry plantations with water at the rate of 8-10 liters per bush.
To care for the standard berry culture should be the same as for traditional varieties of raspberries. However, there are some features of the technology that are important to consider during the cultivation process:
- in the early spring, prevention of the defeat of the most common fungal and bacterial infections is carried out by treating the aerial part with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture or Topaz, diluted at a rate of 10 ml per bucket of water;
- to protect young shoots from gall midges during the mass flight of the plant parasite, in the last ten days of May, they are treated with Actellic or Bi-58 at the rate of 10-15 ml per bucket of water with repeated spraying in the last ten days of July;
- tree-like berry culture, due to its productivity at the stage of active fruiting, requires abundant and regular irrigation measures;
- it is recommended to water the plants once a week, spending about 8-10 liters of water for each productive berry bush;
- in order to maintain moisture indicators and reduce the number of irrigations, it is allowed to mulch the soil in near-stem circles;
- raspberry trees must be fed in the spring with a solution based on urea at the rate of 15 g per 3 l of water for each plant or infusion of mullein;
- A good result is obtained by introducing a nitroamophoska solution before flowering, as well as by foliar top dressing at the budding stage.
In the last ten days of July, such standard varieties as Tarusa, Krepysh, and Skazka need to remove the offspring shoots, and in the autumn, bushes are formed, as a result of which about five of the strongest and most developed shoots should remain on each plant. The apical part should be shortened by 10-15 cm.
Stacked Raspberries: Bush Formation
Such repairing varieties of standard raspberries, such as "Penguin" and "Eurasia", are capable of abundant fruiting exclusively on annual shoots, therefore, in the process of preparing plants for winter, the entire aboveground part is subject to removal. Such events can improve the condition of the berry culture and guarantee a decent harvest for the next year.