Thin Pig (Paxillus involutus) is a mushroom widespread in our country. Among the people, pigs are called dunky mushrooms, pigs, pork breeders, solopeni, solokha, straws, duni and cowsheds.
The fungus Paxillus involutus from the class of agaricomycetes does not have an external resemblance to inedible and poisonous mushrooms. The diameter of the meaty cap, depending on age and growing conditions, can vary from 2 mm to 15 cm or more. In young specimens, it has a weak bulge and wrapped felt edges. With age, the hat aligns and acquires a funnel-shaped indentation in the central part. Some specimens have a funnel fruit body. The edges of the fruiting body can be both lowered, and folded or straight-cut, as well as with frequent waviness.
Young sows are characterized by olive brown or olive brown hats. Older specimens of Paxillus involutus have a grayish-brown or rusty-brown color. The surface, depending on weather conditions and the age of the fungus, is dry, with fibrous pubescence, smooth, glossy, with little stickiness.
The pulp of a pig is of dense or soft consistency, pale yellow or tan, with a characteristic and very pronounced darkening in the area of cut or pressure. Mushroom aroma and taste are practically absent. Hymenophore of the descending folded type, pseudo-plate. The plates are thin and thick, relatively narrow, easily detachable from the pulp, from lemon yellow to rust-brown staining, with the presence of an anastomosis at the leg. The leg is short, solid, matte. Spores brownish staining. The general description of the dunka mushroom may vary somewhat depending on the growing conditions.
Thin pig: description
Relatively recently, signs of the toxicity of Paxillus involutus have been noted. The symptoms of poisoning were first described by the German mycologist Julius Schaeffer, who died of acute renal failure less than three weeks after eating a pig.
To date, the fungus is classified as poisonous, and when it is eaten, fatal outcomes are often noted. This feature of Paxillus involutus is due to the presence of toxin in the fruit bodies, which persists even after repeated heat treatment.
Red blood cell-destroying antibodies contained in a pig provoke the occurrence of hemolytic anemia, nephropathy, and renal failure. Especially high sensitivity to poisons in pigs is observed in children and the elderly, as well as people with a weakened body, having chronic diseases of the urinary system and prone to allergic reactions.
Where and when to collect
Pigs grow in our country almost everywhere. Most often, this mushroom is found in deciduous and coniferous forests. The favorite place of the sows is the edges of the forest belt and the outskirts of the marshy areas.
A very characteristic feature of the fungus is its fertility. Dunes practically do not grow singly and are most often found in groups. Abundant fruiting can be observed throughout the summer-autumn period. Peak fruiting occurs in the second half of summer.
How to cook
In the light of the latest recommendations of the Ministry of Health, many fans of quiet hunting are increasingly wondering what to do with harvested mushrooms, whether it is possible to cook dishes from them or use sows for home preservation.
Less than thirty years ago, this mushroom belonged to the conditionally edible mushrooms of the fourth category, and almost every housewife could cook dishes from a pig. Most often, the pigs were salted and pickled. Before cooking, it was necessary to soak the mushrooms in cold water for three to four days, regularly replacing it.
Currently, cooking dishes and winter preparations from sows is not recommended. When eating mushrooms, symptoms of gastrointestinal poisoning can develop very quickly, including vomiting, diarrhea, and pain in the stomach or abdomen, often accompanied by a drop in the volume of circulating blood. In the future, symptoms may appear in the form of pallor, jaundice, decreased diuresis and oligoanuria.
Edible Mushrooms: Characteristics
To date, there is no antidote to the toxin in the body of the fungus, and maintenance therapy consists only in the use of antihistamines and in the correction of deviations in blood counts and kidney function. In the most severe cases of poisoning, hemodialysis may be required.